English Simple Past & Past Participle PHP Auto Generation

Natural language processing (NLP) – PHP – WordPress – Plugin

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Download English irregular verbs in the flowing formats

Introduction

In this tip, we will discuss how to generate English verb forms using PHP programming language. The resulting code can be used in WordPress plugin.

Verbs forms in English

Verbs in English are with forms: infinitive, simple past, and past participle. Add “ed” to the end of the regular verbs to generate simple past and past participle. The matter is not that simple.

Forms Cases

  • If the verb ends in “e”, add only “d.” For example, “arrive + d = arrived”.
  • If the verb ends in consonant + “y,” change the “y” to “i” and add “-ed”. For example, “study + ed = studied”.
  • If a verb ends in vowel + “y,” add “-ed”. For example, “play + ed = played”.
  • If a one-syllable verb ends in vowel + consonant, double the consonant. For example, “stop + p + ed = stopped”.
  • If the stress is on the final syllable of a verb that ends in vowel + consonant, double the consonant. For example, “prefer + r + ed = preferred”.
  • If the stress is not on the final syllable of a verb that ends in vowel + consonant, add “-ed” only. For example, “óffer + ed = offered”.

Suggested PHP Code

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function english_verb_forms( string $infinitive ) {    
    $infinitive = trim( strtolower( $infinitive ) );
    if ( !$infinitive ) return ''; 
    #1 english irregular verbs
    $sql = "SELECT simple_past, past_participle, 
    regular, form_case FROM english_verbs WHERE 
    infinitive = '$infinitive'";
    global $wpdb;
    $verb = $wpdb->get_row( $sql, ARRAY_A );
    if ( $verb ) return $verb;    
    $verb = array();
    $verb['regular'] = 'regular' ;
    $last = substr( $infinitive, -1 );
    #2 infinitive ends with e
    if ( $last == 'e' ) {
        $verb['simple_past'] = $infinitive . 'd';
        $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
        $verb['form_case'] = 'e' ;        
        return $verb;
    }
    #3 and #4 infinitive ends with y
    if ( $last == 'y' ) {
        $last2 = substr( $infinitive, -2, 1 );
        #3 infinitive ends with vowel + y
        if ( strpos( ' aeuio', $last2 ) === false ) {
            $i = strlen( $infinitive ) - 2;
            $verb['simple_past'] = substr( $infinitive, 0, $i ) . 'ied';
            $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
            $verb['form_case'] = 'vowel + y' ;        
            return $verb;
        } else {
            #4 infinitive ends with consonant + y
            $verb['simple_past'] = $infinitive . 'ed';
            $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
            $verb['form_case'] = 'consonant + y' ;        
            return $verb;            
        }
    }
    #5 infinitive ends with vowel
    if ( strpos( ' aeuiow', $last ) !== false ) {
        $verb['simple_past'] = $infinitive . 'ed';
        $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
        $verb['form_case'] = '' ;        
        return $verb;            
    }
    #infinitive ends with vowel
    $syllables = syllable_count( $infinitive );
    if ( !$syllables ) {
        $verb['simple_past'] = $infinitive . 'ed';
        $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
        $verb['form_case'] = '' ;        
        return $verb;                    
    }
    if ( $syllables == 1 ) {
        #5 infinitive has single syllable and ends with consonant
        $verb['simple_past'] = $infinitive . $last . 'ed';
        $verb['past_participle'] = $verb['simple_past'];
        $verb['form_case'] = 'double last' ;        
        return $verb;                    
    }
    #other cases
    return false;
}

//##################################
function syllable_count( string $str_word ) {
    /* Count syllables in a single word, simple version */
    $str_word = trim( strtolower( $str_word ) );
    if ( !$str_word ) return 0;
    if ( strpos( $str_word, ' ' ) ) return 0;
    $len = strlen( $str_word );
    #1
    if ( $len <= 3 ) return 1;
    
    $word = str_split( $str_word );    
    $syllables = 0;
    $vowels = array( 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u', 'y' );
    $first = $word[ 0 ];
    if ( in_array( $first, $vowels ) )$syllables++;
    for ( $i = 1; $i < count( $word ); $i++ ) {
        if ( in_array( $word[ $i ], $vowels ) &&
            in_array( $word[ $i - 1 ], $vowels ) )$syllables++;
    }
    if ( substr( $str_word, -1 ) == 'e' )$syllables--;
    if ( $syllables == 0 )$syllables++;
    return $syllables;
}
//######################

function syllable_count_full( string $str_word ) {
    /* Count syllables in a single word, simple version */
    $str_word = trim( strtolower( $str_word ) );
    if ( !$str_word ) return 0;
    if ( strpos( $str_word, ' ' ) ) return 0;
    $len = strlen( $str_word );
    #1
    if ( $len <= 3 ) return 1;
    $word = str_split( $str_word );
    $syllables = 0;
    $aeoui = array( 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u' ); //y not included
    //y only at end is vowal
    
    $first = $word[ 0 ];
    if ( in_array( $first, $aeoui ) )$syllables++;
    for ( $i = 1; $i < $len; $i++ ) { if ( in_array( $word[ $i ], $aeoui ) && in_array( $word[ $i - 1 ], $aeoui ) )$syllables++; } $last = $word[ $i - 1 ]; $last2 = substr( $str_word, -2 ); $last3 = substr( $str_word, -3 ); #2) if doesn't end with "ted" or "tes" or "ses" or "ied" or "ies", discard "es" and "ed" at the end. # if it has only 1 vowel or 1 set of consecutive vowels, discard. (like "speed", "fled" etc.) if ( ( $syllables > 1 ) &&
        ( ( $last2 == 'es' ) || ( $last2 == 'ed' ) )
    ) {
        if ( !in_array( $last3, array( 'ted', 'tes', 'ied', 'ies' ) ) )
            $syllables--;
    }

    #3) discard trailing "e", except where ending is "le" 
    $le_except = array(
        'whole', 'mobile', 'pole', 'male', 'female',
        'hale', 'pale', 'tale', 'sale', 'aisle',
        'whale', 'while' );
    if ( in_array( $word, $le_except ) ) {
        $syllables--;
    } else if ( $last2 == 'le' ) {
        //
    } else if ( $last == 'e' ) {
        $syllables--;
    }


    $first2 = substr( $str_word, 0, 2 );

    #6) add one if starts with "mc"
    if ( $first2 == 'mc' )$syllables++;

    #7) add one if ends with "y" but is not surrouned by vowel
    if ( $last == 'y' && !in_array( $word[ $i - 2 ], $aeoui ) ) {
        $syllables++;
    }

    #9) if starts with "tri-" or "bi-" and is followed by a vowel, add one.
    if ( $last3 == "tri" && in_array( $word[ 3 ], $aeoui ) )$syllables++;
    if ( $last2 == "bi" && in_array( $word[ 3 ], $aeoui ) )$syllables++;

    #10) if ends with "-ian", should be counted as two syllables, except for "-tian" and "-cian"
    if ( $last3 == 'ain' ) {
        $last4 = substr( $str_word, -4 );
        if ( ( $last4 != "cian" ) && ( $last4 != "tian" ) )$syllables++;
    }

    #11) if starts with "co-" and is followed by a vowel, check if exists in the double syllable dictionary, if not, check if in single dictionary and act accordingly.    
    if ( $first2 == 'co' ) {
        $co_one = array(
            'cool', 'coach', 'coat',
            'coal', 'count', 'coin', 'coarse',
            'coup', 'coif', 'cook', 'coign', 'coiffe',
            'coof', 'court' );
        $co_two = array( 'coapt', 'coed', 'coinci' );
        $first4 = substr( $str_word, 0, 4 );
        $first5 = '';
        $first6 = '';
        if ( $len > 4 )$first5 = substr( $str_word, 0, 5 );
        if ( $len > 5 )$first6 = substr( $str_word, 0, 6 );
        if ( in_array( $first4, $co_two ) ||
            in_array( $first5, $co_two ) ||
            in_array( $first6, $co_two ) ) {
            //
            $syllables++;
        } else if ( in_array( $first4, $co_one ) ||
            in_array( $first5, $co_one ) ||
            in_array( $first6, $co_one ) ) {
            //pass
        } else {
            $syllables++;
        }
    }
    //
    $first3 = substr( $str_word, 0, 3 );

    #12) if starts with "pre-" and is followed by a vowel, check if exists in the double syllable dictionary, if not, check if in single dictionary and act accordingly.
    if ( $first3 == "pre" && in_array( $word[ 3 ], $aeoui ) &&
        ( strpos( $str_word, 'preach' ) === false ) ) {
        $syllables++;
    }

    #13) check for "-n't" and cross match with dictionary to add syllable.
    $negative = array( "doesn't", "isn't", "shouldn't",
        "couldn't", "wouldn't" );
    if ( ( $last3 == "n't" ) && in_array( $str_word, $negative ) )$syllables++;

    #14) Handling the exceptional words.
    $exception_add = array( 'serious', 'crucial' );
    $exception_del = array( 'fortunately', 'unfortunately' );
    if ( in_array( $str_word, $exception_del ) )$syllables--;
    if ( in_array( $str_word, $exception_add ) )$syllables++;

    if ( $syllables == 0 )$syllables++;
    return $syllables;
}

Useful links

https://en.wiktionary.org

https://wordnet.princeton.edu

 

 

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